Date: Wed, 31 Jan 2001
From: Phil Stover <>
Portolan Chart Reference List. (Updated 15 February 2001)

To the Reader:

The following document represents an informal effort on the author’s part to create a reference list for research on portolan charts. This was not done as part of any academic project. It was for my own enjoyment and benefit in my personal study of portolans. The list was developed from sources in my own library. As I bought or read an article or book, I added it to the list. If the article or book pointed me to further readings, I added them to the list. I am grateful to Waldo Tobler for his permission to integrate his list into mine. This list is intended as a beginning step in the creation of such a list. The author would be grateful for any corrections or additions to the list. This is certainly a work-in-progress.

Portolan charts represent a significant evolutionary phase in the historical development of cartography. It is the author’s hope that this list will provide researchers a "step in the right direction" in attaining knowledge of these beautiful and historically important charts.


A Reference List on Portolan Charts

Compiled by Philip R. Stover

Almagia, R. "Quelques questions au sujet des cartes nautiques et des portulans d’après des recherches récentes." In Archives Internationales d’histoire des Sciences, no. 1 (1947): pp. 237-46.

Andrews. M. C. "The British Isles in the Nautical Charts of the 14th and 15th Centuries." In Geographical Journal LXVIII, 6 (London, 1926): pp. 474-81).

Anthiaume, Abbé A. "Les Cartes Géographiques et Principalement les Cartes Marines dans l’Antiquité et au Moyen Age." In Bulletin de Géographie Historique et Descriptive. XXVI (Paris 1912): pp. 355-443).

Brown, L. The Story of Maps. New York: Bonanza Books. 1949, pp. 135 ff.

Bruzzo, G. "Di Grazioso Benincasa e del Suo Portolano" (une lettera inedita). In Revista Geografica Italiana. IV (Rome 1897), pp. 443-8.

Campbell, Tony. "Portolan Charts from the Late Thirteenth Century to 1500," in The History of Cartography, volume one, Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, pp. 371-463.

Campbell, Tony. "The Toponymy of Early Portolan Charts-A Neglected Key to their Understanding". In 10th Conference on the History of Cartography. Dublin, August, 1983.

Casanova, L. "Inventario dei Portolani e delle Carte Nautiche del Museo Correr". In Bolletino dei Musei Civici Veneziani. 3-4 (1957).

Clos-Arceduc, M. A. L’ enigme des portulans. Etude sur la projection et le mode de construction des cartes à rumbs du XIV siecle. Bulletin de la section de Géographie du Comite des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques 69: 1956, pp. 215-231.

Collinder, P. A. A History of Marine Navigation. London: Bastford, 1954, p. 84.

Cortesão, Armando. The Nautical Chart of 1424, and the Early Discovery and Cartographical Representation of America; a Study on the History of Early Navigation and Cartography. With a foreword by Maximino Correia. Coimbra: University of Coimbra, 1954.

Cortesão, Armando., and Teixeira Da Mota, A. Portugaliae Monumenta Cartographica. Lisbon: 1960, a) p. 93; b) Plate 463; c) Vol. 1, p. 87 ff.; d) Plate 188; e) Plate 465; f) p. 93.

Delatte, A. Les Portulans Grecs. Liège: Faculté de Philosphie et Lettres. Philos., 1947.

Destombes, M. A Venetian Nautical Atlas of the Late Fifteenth Century. Imago Mundi 12 (1955): p. 30.

Duken, A. Reconstuction of the portolan Chart of Giovanni Carignano (1310), Imago Mundi, 1988, pp. 86-95

Fiorini, M. Le Projezioni delle Carte Geografiche. Bologna. 1881.

Fischer, T. Sammlung Mittelalterlicher Welt und Seekarten Italienischen Ursprungs und aus Italienischen Bibliotheken und Archiven. Venedig. 1886.

Freiesleben, H. C. The Still Undiscovered Origin of Portolan Charts. Journal of Navigation 36: 1983, pp. 124-129.

Guillen y Tato, J.F. An Unpublished Atlas of J. Martinez 1591." Imago Mundi 12 (1965): pp. 107-126.

Harmanski, U. and H. Northofer. H. "Rechnergestuetzte Unterschung zur geometrischen Struktur von Portolankarten", Diplomarbeit, Fachbereich Vermessungswesen, Universitaet Essen. 1984.

Howse, Derek, and Michael Sanderson. The Sea Chart. New York: McGraw Hill, 1973.

Kelley, James E, Jr. "Non-Mediterranean Influences that Shaped the Atlantic in the Early Portolan Charts" in Imago Mundi, 31(1979), pp. 18-35.

Kelley, James E, Jr. "Perspectives on the Origins and Uses of the Portolan Charts," in Cartographica, 32:3 (1995), pp. 1-16.

Kelley, James E, Jr. "The Oldest Portolan Chart in the New World". Terrae Incognitae: The Annals of the Society for the History of Discoveries, IX(1977), pp. 22-48.

Koeman, C. "The Chart Trade in Europe from its Origin to Modern Times". In Terrae Incognitae, no. 12(1980), pp. 49-64.

Kretschmer, K. Die Italienischen Portolane des Mittelalters. Berlin: Ernest Siegried Mittler und Sohn. 1909.

La Roncière, Charles. de. "Les Portulans de la Bibliothèque de Lyon". In Amis de la Bibliothèque de Lyon. (1929).

La Roncière, Monique. de. "Les Cartes Marines de l’époque des Grandes Découvertes". In Revue d’histoire économique et sociale. XLV, no. 1 (Paris, 1967): pp. 15-28.

Laguardia-Trias, R. A. La Carta de Navegar de Marino de Tiro en una Reproduccion del Siglo XV. Estudio de Cartologia, Madrid: 1981, pp. 13-28.

Lanman, Jonathan. On the Origin of Portolan Charts. The Hermon Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography. Occasional Publication No. 2. Chicago: The Newberry Library, 1987.

Loomer, S. "A Cartometric Analysis of Portolan Charts", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1987.

Loomer, S. A. Mathematical Analysis of Medieval Sea Charts. ACMS-ASPRS Annual Convention, Volume 1(1986), Cartography and Education, pp. 123-132.

Lynam. E. The Carta Marina of Claus Magnus. Jenkintown: 1949.

Manasek, F. J. Collecting Old Maps. Norwich: Terra Nova Press. 1998, pp. 38, 51.

Marcel, G. Recueil de Portulans. Paris: 1886.

Mesenburg, P. "Eine analytische Betractung zum Informationsgehalt der Portolankarte des Petrus Roselli aus dem Jahre 1449", Karlsruher Geowissenschaftliche schriften, 1(1989), p. 15.

Mesenburg, P. "Numerische und graphische Analysen zur geometrischen Struktur von Portolankarten", Internationales Jahrbuch fuer Kartographie, XXVIII(1988), pp. 73-81.

Mesenburg, P. "Untersuchungen zur kartometrischen Auswertung mittelalterlicher Portolane", Kartographische Nachrichtungen, 1(1990), pp. 9-12.

Minow, H. "Sind die fruehen Portolankarten das ergebnis antiker grossraeumiger Vermessungen?", Kartographisches Kolloquium, Luneberg,: 1985, pp. 161-172.

Mollat Du Jourdin, Michel, and Monique de La Roncière. Sea Charts of the Early Explorers: 13th to 17th Century. Translated by L. Le R. Dethan. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1984.

Moreland, Carl, and David Bannister. Antique Maps. London: Phaidon Press. 1983.

No Author Noted. XIV-XVIII yüzyil Portolan ve Deniz Haritalari Portolani e Carte Nautiche XIV - XVIII Secolo. Ystanbul 1997.

Nordenskïold, A. E. Periplus. New York: Burt Franklin. a) p. 45; b) Plate III; c: p. 47ff.; D) Plate IV.

Oliva, Juan. A Portolan Atlas of the Mediterranean Sea and Western European Waters (with a World Map). Facsimile Edition with an Introduction by John A. Wolter. Washington: Library of Congress. 1987.

Özen, Mine Esiner. Piri Reis and His Charts. Istanbul, 1998.

Parker, John. Antilia and America: a Description of the 1424 Nautical Chart and the Waldseemüller Globe Map of 1507 in the James Ford Bell Collection at the University of Minnesota. Minneapolis: 1955.

Pelham, P. T. The Portolan Charts. Master’s Thesis, Victoria University, Manchester: 1980.

Penrose, B. Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, 1420-1620. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1967, p. 241.

Peters, K. "Zur Diskussion ueber die Herkunft und Entstehenung der Portolankarten", Vermessungsingeniur, 5:1985, pp. 183-188.

Potter, Jonathan. Collecting Antique Maps. London: Jonathan Potter Ltd. 1999, pp. 58, 113.

Putman, Robert. Early Sea Charts. New York: Abbeville Press. 1983.

Rey Pastor, Julio, and Ernesto Garcia Camerero. La Cartografia Mallorquina. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1960, 119-63.

Ristow, Walter W., and R.A. Skelton, comps. Nautical Charts on Vellum in the Library of Congress. Washington: Library of Congress. 1977.

Ritchie. G.S. 500 Years of Graphical and Symbolical Representation on Marine Charts. Internal Hydrographic Organisation. 1975.

Robinson, A. H. W. Marine Cartography in Britain. Oxford: Leicester University Press. 1962, pp. 15, 16, 23, 37, 88.

Romano, V. "Sulla validita della ‘Carta Pisana’", Academia Pontaniana, Nova Seria, 32(1983), pp. 89-99.

Stevenson, E. L. Portolan Atlas Joan Martines en Messina 1582. Publications of the Hispanic Society of America, No. 88.

Stevenson, Edward Luther. Portolan Charts; Their Origin and Characteristics, with a Descriptive List of Those Belonging to the Hispanic Society of America. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1911.

Stochdorph, O. "Computer-aided Distortion Analysis of Old Maps", 11th International Conference on the History of Cartography, Ottawa: 1985, p 3.

Taylor, E. G. R. "Early Charts and the Origin of the Compass-rose". Journal Inst. Navigation. IV(1951), pp. 351-6.

Teixeira da Mota. A. L’ Art de Naviguer en Méditerranée du XIII au XVII Siècle et la Création de la Navigation Astronomique dans les Océans. Paris, Deuxieme Colloque International d’historie Maritime, S. E. V. P. N. 1958.

Tobler, W. "Bi-Dimensional Regression", Geographical Analysis, 26(1994), pp. 186-212.

Tobler, W. "Numerical Approaches to Map Projections" in I. Kretschmer, Studies in Theoretical Cartography, Vienna, Deuticke. 1977, pp. 51-64.

Tobler, W. R. Medieval Distortions: the Projections of Ancient Maps. Annual of the Association of American Geographers 56(1966), pp. 351-361.

Uhden, R. "Die antiken Grundlagen der mittelalterlichen Seekarten", Imago Mundi, I, 1-19.

Urness, Carol. Portolan Charts. Minneapolis: James Ford Bell Library, 1999.

Wagner, H. Die Realität der Existenz der Kleinen Mittelmeer-Meile auf den Italienischen Seekarten des Mittelalters. Vortag in den Verhandigen des VII Internationales Geographen-Kongress in Berlin. 1889.

Wagner, H. Zur Geschichte der Seemeile. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteorologie 41(1913), pp. 393-450.

Wallis, Helen, editor. The Maps and Text of the Boke of Idrography presented by Jean Rotz to Henry VIII. Oxford, The Roxburghe Club. 1981.

Waters, David Watkin, ed. The Rutters of the Sea. Pierre Garcie, called Ferrande, original author. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

Waters, David Watkin. The Art of Navigation in England in Elizabethan and Early Stuart Times. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958.

Whitfield, Peter. The Charting of the Oceans: Ten Centuries of Maritme Maps. Rohnert Park: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1996.

Winter, Heinrich. "Catalan Portolan Maps and the Place in the Total View of Cartographic Development", Imago Mundi, XI(1954), pp. 1-12.

Winter, Heinrich. "Petrus Roselli," in Imago Mundi, IX (1952), pp. 1-11.

Winter, Heinrich. "The Origin of the Sea Chart". In Imago Mundi XIII(1956), pp. 39-44.

Winter, Heinrich. A Late Portolan Chart at Madrid, and Late Portolan Charts in General. Imago Mundi VII(1950), pp. 37-46.


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